The Target Organism in Regard to PAES


We also need to establish a precise goal for answering the original question.

Perhaps the most challenging aspect of simulations such as these are in estimating

the minimum PAES needed to arrive at an organism that has a fully functioning

structure that converts an alternate energy source. Although the original question

allows that the target organism may still rely on sunlight as a primary energy

source, a structure must exist within the cell that converts enough of the secondary

energy source to compensate for the energy needed to maintain the structure. I

see no other option than to offer a very wide range of possibilities, leaving refine-

ments to those readers who have greater knowledge of biology than I have. I

suggest that for the target organism to be reached, the PAES of this organism will

be within the following range:


Minimum: 100 PAES

Mean: 5,000 PAES

Maximum: 10,000 PAES


Well assume that 1000 saturation cycles equals one year. Should about three cell

cycles per day seem unreasonable, let year simply refer to 1000 cell cycles.


IS Calculations


We now need a formula or system that produces a reasonable increase in population

figures for groups that have a higher IS than the greatly predominant organisms in

in the immediate environment. This formula will need to make only a very small

increase in population, in one saturation cycle, when the smaller group has only a

one point advantage in IS over the predominant population. (Actually, the smaller

key group competes according to the average IS of the immediate environment.

For example, should a small group compete well over a long period of time and

eventually become dominant in numbers, it will then be competing against itself

more than it will be competing against what has become the minority group.) On

the other hand, the formula needs to allow for a greater increase per saturation cycle

should a group have many points advantage in IS over its average competition.

It seems reasonable to assign one percentage point to each degree of IS over or

under the average IS of the competition. For example, if a group has a one point

IS advantage over the general population, the group size will increase at 101% per

saturation cycle rather than remaining at the same size.


A Closer Look at the Attributes


When considering principles of competition, it should be noted that a group does

not consist of 100% genetically identical organisms. For example, 2-A consists

of organisms that all originated from the original 1-A population. Each of the

2-A organisms received one non-harmful mutation that slightly improved the

ability to survive and pass on attributes to future generations. The point is that

these organisms are scattered through the oceans at random. They are, at first, com-

peting against the original population and not against themselves. Although the

details of the mutational changes are different for each organism, the overall average

effect allows us to predict how 2-A grows in a saturated environment. It is the

attributes that distinguish an organism as a member of a group such as 2-A, not

specific genetic mutational changes. This is what allows us to calculate population

growths without getting bogged down in specific biological complexities. Whatever

genetic mutation takes place in any organism, its effect, in terms of IS and PAES,

will place it into a group and the average IS and PAES of the group determines how

its population will change as it competes with other groups.